The Effects of Using On-Screen and Paper Maps on Navigation Efficiency in 3D Multi-User Virtual Environments


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GAMING AND COMPUTER-MEDIATED SIMULATIONS, vol.11, no.4, pp.21-41, 2019 (ESCI) identifier identifier


This study aims to analyze the effects of using on-screen and paper maps on navigation efficiency in 3D MUVEs. There were 48 participants in the study, which has a randomized true experimental design. The researchers administered a demographics questionnaire and the spatial visualization test to the participants and formed three groups by checking a variety of independent variables, the On-Screen Map (OSM) group, the Paper Map (PM) group, and the Coordinate System (CS) group, which did not use any kind of map. The participants completed three tasks with increasing difficulty levels. There was a statistically significant difference between the methods for the completion times of the first task and aggregate tasks. This difference was between CS and PM as well as between CS and OSM. Participants got confused and lost the most in the CS group and the least in the OSM group. The CS group took longer to complete the tasks and got lost more frequently. Navigational aids that included visual tips about the environment increased the navigation efficiency of the participants using the MUVE.