Sex and age as determinants for high blood pressure in pediatric renal transplant recipients: a longitudinal analysis of the CERTAIN Registry

Sugianto R. I., Schmidt B. M. W., Memaran N., DÜZOVA A., TOPALOĞLU R., Seeman T., ...More

PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, vol.35, no.3, pp.415-426, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00467-019-04395-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.415-426
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background High prevalence of arterial hypertension is known in pediatric renal transplant patients, but how blood pressure (BP) distribution and control differ between age groups and whether sex and age interact and potentially impact BP after transplantation have not been investigated. Methods This retrospective analysis included 336 pediatric renal transplant recipients (62% males) from the Cooperative European Pediatric Renal Transplant Initiative Registry (CERTAIN) with complete BP measurement at discharge and 1, 2 and 3 years post-transplant. Results At discharge and 3 years post-transplant, arterial hypertension was highly prevalent (84% and 77%); antihypertensive drugs were used in 73% and 68% of the patients. 27% suffered from uncontrolled and 9% from untreated hypertension at 3 years post-transplant. Children transplanted at age < 5 years showed sustained high systolic BP z-score and received consistently less antihypertensive treatment over time. Younger age, shorter time since transplantation, male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), high cyclosporine A (CSA) trough levels, and a primary renal disease other than congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) were significantly associated with higher systolic BP z-score. Sex-stratified analysis revealed a significant association between high CSA and higher systolic BP in older girls that likely had started puberty already. An association between BP and estimated glomerular filtration rate was not detected. Conclusions BP control during the first 3 years was poor in this large European cohort. The description of age- and sex-specific risk profiles identified certain recipient groups that may benefit from more frequent BP monitoring (i.e. young children) or different choices of immunosuppression (i.e. older girls).