Let R be a ring. Modules satisfying ascending or descending chain conditions (respectively, acc and dcc) on non-summand submodules belongs to some particular classes X, such as the class of all R-modules, finitely generated, finite-dimensional and cyclic modules, are considered. It is proved that a module M satisfies acc (respectively, dcc) on non-summands if and only if M is semisimple or Noetherian (respectively, Artinian). Over a right Noetherian ring R, a right R-module M satisfies acc on finitely generated non-summands if and only if M satisfies acc on non-summands; a right R-module M satisfies dcc on finitely generated non-summands if and only if M is locally Artinian. Moreover, if a ring R satisfies dcc on cyclic non-summand right ideals, then R is a semiregular ring such that the Jacobson radical J is left t-nilpotent.