Purpose Pediatric surgeons are exposed to intense work-related activities, depending on their profession, including residency training. This study aims to investigate the musculoskeletal symptoms and analyze the relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and the demographics, physical activity levels, and body mass index (BMI) of pediatric surgeons. Methods A total of 82 pediatric surgeons (female, 20; male, 62) were included in this study. The musculoskeletal symptoms were determined using the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire. The levels of physical activity were determined using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results The mean age of the participants was 48.97 +/- 8.894 years, the mean BMI was 26.72 +/- 4.12 kg/m(2), and the mean working time after acquiring their specialty was 18.65 +/- 9.83 years. The average surgery counts per week were 15.22 +/- 12.17. Pediatric surgeons mostly complained from lower back pain, upper back pain, neck pain, and right and left shoulder pain. Surgeons with higher BMI had higher pain scores and received more treatment sessions. Conclusions Pediatric surgeons' complaints are related to their total numbers of surgery. Higher BMI and lower physical activity seem to be the major contributing factors for developing musculoskeletal symptoms. The study results indicated that surgeons should keep their BMI levels to the optimum and increase their physical activity levels.