Pneumomediastinum, pneumorrhachis and subcutaneous emphysema associated with viral infections: Report of three cases

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Emiralioğlu N., Ozcan H., Oğuz B., Yalçın E., Doğru D., Özçelik U., ...More

PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, vol.57, no.5, pp.1038-1040, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/ped.12785
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1038-1040
  • Keywords: bocavirus, pneumomediastinum, pneumorrhachis, respiratory syncytial virus, viral infection, COMPLICATIONS, CHILDREN
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is usually secondary to alveolar rupture in the pulmonary interstitium, associated with subcutaneous emphysema and occasionally with pneumothorax, but is rarely associated with pneumorrhachis. The leaked air into the pulmonary perivascular interstitium follows the path of least resistance from the mediastinum to the fascial planes of the neck. Air freely communicates via the neural foramina and collects in the epidural space. Pneumorrhachis is defined as the presence of air in the spinal canal, either in the intradural and/or extradural spaces. It is a very rare clinical entity and mostly asymptomatic, hence most probably underdiagnosed. Many pathological and physiological events can lead to alveolar rupture, and these clinical findings can be related to various, mainly traumatic and iatrogenic etiologies. Herein we report three cases of pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, interstitial emphysema and pneumorrhachis in two cases, which were related to rhinovirus, human bocavirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection.