Kinematic analysis of handwriting movements and pencil grip patterns in children with low vision

Guven Z., Uysal S. A.

HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE, vol.81, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 81
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.humov.2021.102907
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, SportDiscus
  • Keywords: Kinematic analysis, Handwriting, Pencil grip, Digitizer tablet, Visual impairment, STUDENTS, GRASP, SPEED, COORDINATION, LEGIBILITY, SKILLS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: Handwriting skills are important for the academic life of children and the lack of visualmotor performance leads to writing problems in children with low vision. This study aims to reveal handwriting kinematics and pencil grip features in children with low vision by means of a novel method. Materials and methods: 18 children with low vision (mean age: 9.83 +/- 1.54 years) and 18 children with typical development (mean age: 9.83 +/- 1.62 years) were included in the study. Children performed a sentence writing task on a digitizer tablet. During the task, the writing hand of children was photographed to analyze pencil grip patterns. Results: Children with low vision performed greater stroke size except for the vertical size, slower writing speed, more dysfluent movements, and less pen pressure than children with typical development. However, participants preferred mature pencil grip patterns and had high grip scores independent from the diagnosis. Conclusions: The findings indicate that children with low vision have difficulties in handwriting in terms of spatial and temporal features. These results would be important for interventions to develop specific programs on writing skills to support their educational life.