Neuropathic pain is a common symptom of a group of heterogenic diseases including pain related diseases, central or peripheric nervous system injuries, diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, postherpetic neuralgia and spinal cord injuries. According to the clinical view, neuropathic pain is related to the etiology of various diseases like cancer or diabetes. Common conclusion is that, in conditions of neuropathic pain neuronal hyperexcitability is the key point but it is not clear that this is peripheral, central or a combination of both. In diagnosis, the first step is to find out the localization, time, severity and quality of pain, the factors increasing or decreasing the pain and the physical and psychological debility. Neuroanatomic distribution of pain is also important at diagnosis. Classical drugs like antidepressants, anticonvulsants and antiarrhythmic agents can be used in treatment of neuropathic pain.