Background: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2 (FHL2) is the most common familial type of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immune dysregulation. FHL2 patients have mutations in the perforin gene which cause overactivation and proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Perforin is the key component of the cytolytic granule response function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Perforin dysfunction causes a cytotoxic immune deficiency with a clinical outcome of uncontrolled and continuous immune stimulation response. This excessive stimulation leads to continuous systemic inflammation and, ultimately, multiorgan failure. Radical therapy is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which is limited by the availability of a donor. Exacerbations of inflammatory attacks require a palliative immunosuppressive regimen. There is a need for an alternative or adjuvant therapy to maintain these patients when immunosuppression is ineffective or a donor is not available. Beneficial actions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown in autoimmune diseases in clinical trials and are attributed to their immune-modulatory properties. This study aimed to assess the immune-modulatory effect of MSCs in an in-vitro model of FHL2.