Turkish Teacher Candidates' Self-Efficacies to Use Listening Strategies Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study


SAGE OPEN, vol.11, no.2, 2021 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/21582440211023174
  • Journal Name: SAGE OPEN
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: listening strategies, Turkish teacher candidates, self-efficiency, teacher education, education, social sciences, language teaching, language studies, humanities, COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES, METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS, QUESTIONNAIRE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to develop Turkish Teacher Candidates' Self-Efficacies to Use Listening Strategies Scale. Therefore, the study was designed in sequential explanatory design, and sequential timing has been followed. First, the interview study was conducted with 40 participants, and the qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Subsequently, an item pool was designed via the findings obtained from the qualitative findings and literature review. Afterward, the draft form was applied to Turkish teacher candidates and 345 valid forms were obtained. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis conducted for the data obtained, we determined that the items were collected in four factors in total. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated as .927 for the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed in the last stage, and finally, we found that all factors are statistically significant and the obtained model has a good fit. In addition, we determined that the qualitative findings have chronological categorization and the quantitative findings have thematical categorization. This means that thematic categorization to the listening strategies can be more appropriate for listening skills. Consequently, the scale can be used in determining the self-efficacy perceptions of Turkish teacher candidates to use listening strategies. Furthermore, the scale can contribute to similar studies in the literature.