Membrane distillation (MD) is a rapidly developing field of research and finds applications in desalination of water, purification from nonvolatile substances, and concentration of various solutions. This review presents data from recent studies on the MD process, MD configuration, the type of membranes and membrane hydrophobization. Particular importance has been placed on the methods of hydrophobization and the use of track-etched membranes (TeMs) in the MD process. Hydrophobic TeMs based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and polycarbonate (PC) have been applied in the purification of water from salts and pesticides, as well as in the concentration of low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLLRW). Such membranes are characterized by a narrow pore size distribution, precise values of the number of pores per unit area and narrow thickness. These properties of membranes allow them to be used for more accurate water purification and as model membranes used to test theoretical models (for instance LEP prediction).