In this study Mitomycin-C-loaded alginate carriers were prepared as an alternative system in the postoperative chemotherapy in bladder cancer. Alginate was preferred because of its constructive properties and it was prepared in a cylindrical shape to facilitate the insertion of the carrier for in vivo studies. The alginate carriers were prepared as calcium alginate gel as wen as cross-linking agents. In the preparation of the alginate carriers, precipitation medium concentration, cross-linker concentration, and Mitomycin-C/alginate ratio were changed to obtain drug attachment to the inner wall of bladder and/or optimum release rate of the agent. Due to the hydrogel structure of the alginate, the swelling behavior of the polymer was evaluated by gravimetric determinations in aqueous media periodically. Swelling ratios of the alginate carriers were changed from 30 to 65% based on precipitation medium, cross-linker concentration, and swelling medium pH. For prediction of the bioadhesion of the alginate carriers to the inner surface of bladder, in vitro bioadhesion tests were performed by using fresh bladders which were taken from New Zealand rabbits. It was observed that the in vitro Mitomycin-C release and bioadhesion values were significantly changed with changing swelling ratios.