Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behcet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; "Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Adliye-i Sahane", in 1843. The first modern medical schools called "Tiphane" and "Cerrahhane-i Amire" which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in "Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Adliye-i Sahane". Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar), educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in "Istanbul Darulfunun" medical school. In 1933 "Darulfunin" was closed and Istanbul University was built and the "University Reform Commission" invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in Istanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in Istanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.