Microbial culture collections are crucial resource centres providing microbial materials. They act as repositories for microbial strains as part of patent deposits, confidential services to store key organisms for research, industry and society and sources of microorganisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further studies. Microbial culture collections are considered as libraries, but instead of books they hold microorganisms. The first culture collection was established by Prof. Frantisek Kral in 1890 at the German University of Prague. After this collection, many culture collections established. Now there are 568 culture collections over the world. These collections categorize as national collections which provide extensive services or small collections which supply strains or related services by special agreement. Microorganisms provide many solutions to world problems in public health, food, environment and poverty and they are extremely important for various ecosystems.