Problems have been reported in the execution and development of motor skills and its treatment as a cause of cancer in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the task-orientated rehabilitation program (ToRP) on motor skills of children with childhood cancer. Following the consort guideline, 93 children (49 males and 44 females) with pediatric cancer were randomized to either study (n = 52; 12.35 +/- 3.43 years) or control (n = 41; 11.89 +/- 3.56 years) groups. The study group received ToRP, and the control group received a home-based therapeutic strategies program for 20 sessions. Motor skill outcomes were assessed with Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Short Form (BOTMP-SF) by assessor who was blind to group allocation and interventions. The groups were homogenous in terms of demographic characteristics and motor skills. The study group showed a significant increase in both gross and fine motor skills (P values for all subtests: P < 0.001), whereas running speed, bilateral coordination, strength, response speed and visual motor control did not show significant improvement with the control group (P > 0.05). The ToRP appears to provide beneficial effects in improving motor skills at the early stages of rehabilitation for children with childhood cancer.