The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of local intrarenal renin angiotensin system (RAS) with hypertension and proteinuria in renal transplant recipients. Sixty-nine nondiabetic renal transplant recipients (39 male, mean age: 36.3 +/- 11.5 years) were included in this study. All patients were in stable condition with GFR greater than 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2); (MDRD). Hypertension was defined to be present if there was a recorded diagnosis of hypertension, systolic blood pressure >130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >80 mmHg according to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. None of the hypertensive patients were receiving RAS blockers. Spot urine samples were obtained to measure urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) using human AGT-ELISA, urinary creatinine and protein levels. The demographic properties and laboratory findings were similar between hypertensive and normotensive transplant recipients. Urinary AGT-creatinine ratio (UAGT/UCre) was significantly higher in hypertensive patients compared with the normotensives (8.98 +/- 6.89 mu g/g vs. 5.48 +/- 3.33 mu g/g; P = 0.037). Importantly, a significantly positive correlation was found between UAGT/Ucre levels and proteinuria in hypertensive patients (P = 0.01, r = 0.405). Local intrarenal RAS probably plays an important role in the development of hypertension and proteinuria in renal transplant recipients.