Philadelphia (Ph*)/BCR-ABL1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is considered as a chronic life-long disease, which could be manageable with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs. The aim of TKI drug treatment is to provide age- and sex-matched duration of life in a given patient with CML Personalized CML treatment with TKI drugs is the key strategy. Individual treatment approach includes the harmonization of CML disease characteristics, clinical experience, and best available clinical evidence. Specific CML disease characteristics in a given patient include; CML disease risk, comorbidities, molecular profile, compliance, lifestyle, and drug off-target risk profile. CML research evidence includes; randomized clinical trials indicating the data on the efficacy, safety, tolerability, toxicity, possible longterm adverse events, and pharmacoeconomy of TKIs. Clinical and physician experience includes TKI availability, TKI reimbursability, drug experience, adherence, and BCR-ABL1 monitorization facilities. The key decision of choosing a TKI of choosing TKIs for CML should be made via the consideration of these variables. The aim of this paper is to outline the latest 2016 World Health Organization definition of CML and its proper management with TKI-class drugs.