Brassica taxa occur naturally and are also cultivated in Turkey. Due to their economic importance, several cultivars have been extensively cultivated in certain regions of the country. Alongside extensive cultivation for vegetable production of the other species of the genus, Brassica juncea has very limited cultivation. Five native species of Brassica are known from restricted locations in Turkey with only a few collections. Among them, Brassica elongata is distributed all over the Central and Eastern parts of the country and it prefers unfertile soils on hillsides. Highlighting the current data about the Brassica taxa would lead to new initiatives for Brassica research dealing with both the genetic structure and the origin of the taxa. Diagnostic characters of the genera closely related to Brassica have been discussed under the relevant genera. Additionally, an overview for the Turkish Brassiceae tribe, both native and cultivated, has been presented and the relevant identification keys have been supplied for updating.