Obstructive jaundice leads to bacterial translocation (BT) by disruption of the gut barrier, intestinal microecology, and impaired host immune defence. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of different enteral nutrients on BT that is induced by obstructive jaundice in rats. Eighty male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. Group 1: 20 rats underwent laparotomy, common bile duct (CBD) was not actually ligated and transected, but sham ligation of CBD was performed. Groups 2 - 4: 60 rats underwent laparotomy, CBD ligation and transection. Group 1 and 2 rats were given rat chow, group 3 rats were fed a glutamine and arginine supplemented enteral diet, and group 4 rats were fed an arginine, m-RNA and omega-3 supplemented enteral diet, an immunonutrient. Rats in groups 3 and 4 had significantly less BT to mesenteric lymph nodes compared to rats in group 2 ( p = 0.001). These findings suggest that oral administration of an arginine and glutamine supplemented diet and immunonutrition reduce BT in rats with obstructive jaundice. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.