An update on the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex


Turkish Journal of Zoology, vol.48, no.1, pp.21-35, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.55730/1300-0179.3157
  • Journal Name: Turkish Journal of Zoology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Geobase, Veterinary Science Database, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.21-35
  • Keywords: 16S rDNA, historical biogeography, phylogeny, Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex, Türkiye
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex is among the most studied hard tick species due to its worldwide distribution and its ability to transmit several pathogens. In this study, new local data and recent global findings were used to reevaluate the evolutionary history and phylogeny of the R. sanguineus complex. Seventy-nine samples of Rhipicephalus sp., which were collected from 32 different localities of Türkiye and one locality from Northern Cyprus, were analyzed using two mitochondrial (mt 16S rDNA, mt 12S rDNA) and one nuclear (ITS2) markers. The findings from phylogenetic trees indicate the presence of a third genetically distinct lineage of R. sanguineus sensu lato in addition to the tropical and temperate lineages. This particular lineage is primarily distributed in the Middle East. Only this lineage of R. sanguineus s.l. has been shown to occur in Türkiye. Genetic analysis confirmed distinct lineages of Rhipicephalus turanicus in Asia and Europe, with both lineages being found within Türkiye. Ancestral area analyses were consistent with previous findings, suggesting that the Middle East + Eastern Europe region was the origin of the many members of the complex and significantly contributed to its global distribution.