Role of aluminum exposure on Alzheimer's disease and related glycogen synthase kinase pathway.

Sanajou S., Erkekoğlu P., Şahin G., Baydar T.

Drug and chemical toxicology, pp.1-13, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/01480545.2022.2065291
  • Journal Name: Drug and chemical toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-13
  • Keywords: Aluminum, neurotoxicity, Alzheimer's disease, GSK3 beta, tau, DRINKING-WATER, PARKINSONS-DISEASE, OXIDATIVE STRESS, AMYLOID-BETA, BRAIN, RISK, HEALTH, GSK3, TAU, IMPAIRMENT


Aluminum (Al) is an environmentally abundant metal that is not essential for life. There is considerable evidence that Al as a neurotoxic xenobiotic may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exposure to aluminum has been shown to cause neuronal damage that resembles the symptoms of AD. In this review, we will summarize recent data about Al as the possible risk of incidence of AD. Then glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) contributes to the hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, one of the hallmarks of AD as one of the mechanisms behind Al neurotoxicity will be covered. Overall, there is still a need for epidemiological studies and more in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the exact mechanisms of its neurotoxicity and the role of GSK3 beta in both Al toxic effect and AD.