Clausal or Phrasal: Variability of Lexical Bundles in L1 and Turkish L2 English Research Articles

Güngör F., Uysal H. H.

PASAA, vol.65, pp.125-171, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Journal Name: PASAA
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MLA - Modern Language Association Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.125-171
  • Keywords: corpus-based study, educational sciences, lexical bundles, research articles
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to compare how native and non-native Turkish authors use four-word lexical bundles in research articles written in English in educational sciences. The two-million-word corpus included 165 research articles in L2 English and 206 in L1 English. Our corpus query resulted in 119 bundles in L2 English and 79 bundles in L1 English with a cut-off point of 20 times per million words and the occurrence in at least 10% of the articles in each corpus. The frequency results reveal that non-native authors dominantly use lexical bundles in their research articles. The classification of bundles revealed considerable structural and functional differences, and we analyzed these differences as convergent and divergent bundles. The Turkish authors used procedure (e.g., the study was conducted) and inferential bundles (e.g., it is seen that) significantly more than other functional categories. They also heavily used verb-based structures (e.g., it was found that), namely clausal structures rather than phrasal structures, in their research articles. These results are expected to remark on the significant role of phrase formation and modification in EAP modules' writing and grammar lectures.