Sophisticated genetically engineered macrophages, CAR-Macs, in hitting the bull’s eye for solid cancer immunotherapy approaches

Unver N.

Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol.23, no.7, pp.3171-3177, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10238-023-01106-0
  • Journal Name: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.3171-3177
  • Keywords: CAR-Macs, Macrophage, M2 macrophage, Immunotherapy
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Studies have begun to employ macrophages engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-Macs) against solid tumors since they can enter solid tumor tissue and interact with approximately all cellular components in the tumor microenvironment. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as an appealing strategy for improving immune cells' ability to detect cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) generated with CAR designs exhibit appropriate potency based on their capacity to enter solid tumors and communicate through the inhibitory tumor microenvironment. CAR-Macs technology is a new therapeutic method for attacking cancer cells by switching pro-tumoral M2 macrophages to anti-tumoral M1 macrophages, enhancing macrophage phagocytosis, or increasing antigen presentation activity. CAR-Macs may have a prevailing impact on surrounding immune cells, indicating that they retain anti-tumor activity in the presence of human M2 macrophages, demonstrating their use in CAR technology. Understanding the biology of TAM and targeting novel domains for the advanced CAR-Macrophage platform, it will be feasible to add a new dimension to immunotherapy techniques used exclusively in solid malignancies. This review describes how CAR-Macs technologies modulate CAR-Macrophage production, potential target biomarkers on these platforms, their role in immunotherapeutic approaches, and tumor microenvironment.