Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress cooperate to compromise the function of the central nervous system (CNS). Colloidal platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) are ideal candidates for reducing the deleterious effects of neuroinflammation since they act as free radical scavengers. Here we evaluated the effects of Pt NPs on several markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in cultured BV-2 microglial cells. BV-2 cells were treated with increased dilutions (1-100 ppm) of Colloidal Pt and/or LPS (1-10 mu g/mL) at different exposure times. Three different protocols of exposure were used combining Pt NPs and LPS: (a) conditioning-protective effect (pre-post-treat), (b) therapeutic effect (co-treat) and (c) conditioning-therapeutic effect (pre-co-treat). After exposure to LPS for 24 h, cells were used for assessment of cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, apoptosis and caspase-3 levels, cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6) levels, and phagocytic activity. Low concentrations (below or equal to 10 ppm) of Colloidal Pt prevented or ameliorated the LPS-induced increase in ROS formation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of apoptosis, increase in LDH release, increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS, inhibition of phagocytosis linked to microglial persistence in the M1 phase phenotype, loss of cell adhesion, differentiation and/or proliferation, as well as loss of cell viability. These protective effects were evident when cells were preconditioned with Pt NPs prior to LPS treatment. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that at low concentrations, Pt NPs can regulate the function and phenotype of BV-2 cells, activating protective mechanisms to maintain the microglial homeostasis and reduce inflammatory events triggered by the inflammatory insults induced by LPS. These preventive/protective effects on the LPS pro-inflammatory model are linked to the antioxidant properties and phagocytic activity of these NPs.