This paper presents a taxonomic contribution to the genus Pyrus L. P. georgica and P. pseudosyriaca are reported from Turkey for the first time. The status of P. pseudosyriaca is discussed and it is treated as a new variety of Pyrus syriaca. Notes on the chorology, morphological descriptions, figures, and taxonomy are provided. Moreover, P. serikensis and P. boissieriana are reduced to synonyms of P. cordata. An endemic subspecies, P. elaeagrifolia subsp. kotschyana, is compared with the related species P. elaeagrifolia and it is reassessed at the species level based on morphology and distribution. With these changes, Pyrus is represented by 18 taxa belonging to 12 species in Turkey.