Assessing the status of European laboratories in evaluating biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and recommendations for improvement: Insights from the 2022 EFLM Task Group on CKD survey

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Cavalier E., Makris K., Portakal O., Nikler A., Datta P., Zima T., ...More

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol.62, no.2, pp.253-261, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 62 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/cclm-2023-0987
  • Journal Name: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.253-261
  • Keywords: creatinine, cystatin C, equations, glomerular filtration rate, recommendations, survey
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health issue, ranking as the third leading cause of death worldwide. CKD diagnosis and management depend on clinical laboratory tests, necessitating consistency for precise patient care. Global harmonization of CKD testing through clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is recommended. Prior to CPG development, assessing the current CKD testing landscape is crucial. In 2022, the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) conducted an online survey among European laboratories associated with EFLM, evaluating CKD testing practices, including new glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation methods. This report summarizes the 2022 survey findings and offers recommendations for improving CKD test standardization. An online survey was conducted in November 2022 using a questionnaire hosted on LimeSurvey sent to European laboratories affiliated with the EFLM. The survey results were recorded in Excel files and analysed. The results highlight significant discrepancies among countries in unit expression, methods, cystatin C use, and GFR calculation equations. Additionally, limited attention to pediatric renal biology specifics, varied proteinuria and albuminuria result expressions, and limited awareness of GFR measurement methods through iohexol clearance are noted. In an effort to enhance the standardization of crucial biomarkers utilized in nephrology for evaluating renal function and diagnosing kidney injuries, the EFLM Task Group on CKD suggests nine practical recommendations tailored for European laboratories. The group is confident that implementing these measures will minimize result expression discrepancies, ultimately leading to enhanced patient care.