Objective The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between the fear of COVID-19 and the preventive measures of healthcare workers and service sector employees during the covid-19 pandemic. Methods The present study is a descriptive type of research. The study's sample group consisted of 735 people and included healthcare workers (n = 426) and service sector employees (n = 309). In this study, sociodemographic characteristics, employment in the healthcare or service sector, having a relative with COVID-19, losing any relative due to COVID-19 and taking preventive measures were taken as independent variables. The dependent variable was the score from the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Results The FCV-19S median value was 14 for the service sector and 17 for the healthcare sector. While no difference was found between occupational groups and the FCV-19S score in the service sector, there was a significant correlation between occupational groups and the FCV-19S score in the healthcare sector. The FCV-19S median value of midwives was 21, and it was higher than those of other occupational groups were. The mean FCV-19S scores of those who thought they had COVID-19 symptoms due to stress or panic were higher among the healthcare workers. Conclusion The healthcare workers need more support in fear management than those engaged in service sector employees, and it is recommended that raising the awareness of service sector employees in terms of compliance with preventive measures should be prioritized.