Organophosphorus Pesticides Promote Protein Cross-Linking

Schopfer L. M., Onder S., Lockridge O.

CHEMICAL RESEARCH IN TOXICOLOGY, vol.35, no.9, pp.1570-1578, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.2c00194
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1570-1578
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP) can have chronic adverse effects that are independent of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, the classic target for acute OP toxicity. In pure proteins, the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon induces a cross-link between lysine and glutamate (or aspartate) with loss of water. Tubulin is particularly sensitive to OP-induced cross-linking. Our goal was to explore OP-induced cross-linking in a complex protein sample, MAP-rich tubulin from Sus scrofa and to test 8 OP for their capacity to promote isopeptide cross-linking. We treated 100 mu g of MAP-rich tubulin with 100 mu M chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, methamidophos, paraoxon, diazinon, diazoxon, monocrotophos, or dichlorvos. Each sample was separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie blue. Five gel slices (at about 30, 50, 150, and 300 kDa, and the top of the separating gel) were removed from the lanes for each of the eight OP samples and from untreated control lanes. These gel slices were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion. MSMS fragmentation spectra of the tryptic peptides were examined for isopeptide cross-links. Sixteen spectra yielded convincing evidence for isopeptide cross-linked peptides. Ten were from the chlorpyrifos oxon reaction, 1 from dichlorvos, 1 from paraoxon, 1 from diazinon, and 3 from diazoxon. It was concluded that catalysis of protein cross-linking is a general property of organophosphorus pesticides and pesticide metabolites. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD034529.