Renal transplantation has become the best treatment for the patients with chronic renal insufficiency. The surgical procedures, immunosuppressive regiments and patient follow-up have evolved especially in the last 10 years. However, the diagnosis for renal transplanta-tion dysfunction remained the same in these years. Serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by serum creatinine based equations are used in routine patient follow-up. Pelvic ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasonography are used as a first-line imaging method. Assessment of allograft functions both qualitatively and quantita-tively are possible using nuclear medicine procedures. Surgical complications, acute tubu-lar necrosis, subacute and/or acute rejection, infections, toxicity due to immunosuppressive medications, complications relating the collecting system, chronic rejection are the main causes for renal function impairment. The imaging procedures can diagnose the worsening of renal transplant function; however, they still lack the ability to differentiate types of rejec-tion as histopathology or differentiate rejection from other causes of allograft dysfunction. The transplant biopsy gives detailed diagnosis for allograft dysfunction, guide the treatment and therefore it is the preferred diagnostic choice in recent years. On recent years, literature on radionuclide imaging is focused on perfusion analysis for the early diagnosis of renal transplant dysfunction and prognostic use of perfusion parameters, and then this article will focus on these studies and their outcome. Semin Nucl Med 51:364-379 (c) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.