JOURNAL OF LIPOSOME RESEARCH, vol.21, no.3, pp.194-202, 2011 (SCI-Expanded)
The effects of tricylic antidepressant clomipramine (CLO) on the membrane properties of saturated dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine as well as on unsaturated egg yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes were investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling technique, in combination with the simulation of the spectra, taking into account that the membrane is heterogeneous and composed of the regions with different fluidity characteristics. Different spin labels, monitoring membrane properties in the upper and inner parts of the membrane, were used. In general, two spectral components, having different motional characteristics, were detected in all liposomes investigated. In liposomes with saturated chains, CLO decreased the phase-transition temperature, disordered the membrane, and increased polarity in the upper part of the membrane. However, less impact was observed in liposomes with unsaturated chains. In dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine liposomes, it also induced molecular rearrangements near the pretransition temperature. The presence of 30 mol% cholesterol increased the fluidizing effect of CLO and modified the lateral diffusion of nitroxide in the inner part of the membrane. A unique anomalous increase in diffusion of nitroxide, dependent on CLO concentration, was detected in the temperature region where the phosphatidylcholine membrane without cholesterol experiences the phase transitions. Since the changes in the central part of the membrane were even more pronounced than in the upper part of the membrane, it could be concluded that CLO incorporates into the membrane with its hydrophobic ring parallel to the phospholipid chains.