Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) type I is a hereditary renal tubular disorder, which is characterized by impaired renal acid secretion resulting in metabolic acidosis. Clinical symptoms are nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, osteomalacia, and growth retardation. Biochemical alterations consist of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia with muscle weakness, hypercalciuria, and inappropriately raised urinary pH. Autosomal dominant and rare forms of recessive dRTA are known to be caused by mutations in the gene for the anion exchanger AE1. In order to identify a gene responsible for recessive dRTA, we performed a total genome scan with 303 polymorphic microsatellite markers in six consanguineous families with recessive dRTA from Turkey. In four of these there was an association with sensorineural deafness. The total genome scan yielded regions of homozygosity by descent in all six families on chromosomes 1, 2, and 10 as positional candidate region. In one of these regions the gene ATP6B1 for the B1 subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase is localized, which has recently been identified as causative for recessive dRTA with sensorineural deafness. Therefore, we conducted mutational analysis in 15 families and identified potential loss-of-function mutations in ATP6B1 in 8. We thus confirmed that defects in this gene are responsible for recessive dRTA with sensorineural deafness.