Introduction and hypothesisWe evaluated whether vaginal tampon training (VTT) combined with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) results in better outcomes than PFMT alone for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI).MethodsThis was a randomized, controlled study. Patients were allocated to either the combined program, consisting of PFMT and VTT over 12weeks [PFMT and VTT group (n=24)] or to PFMT alone [PFMT group (n=24)]. The primary outcome measure was self-reported improvement, while secondary outcome measures were severity of incontinence, quality of life (QoL), urinary parameters, and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) and endurance (PFME). Values were analyzed with Friedman, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and chi-square tests.ResultsBetween-group analysis showed no statistically significant differences in self-reported improvement, severity of incontinence, symptom distress score, PFMS, PFME, urinary parameters, and all domains of QoL scores, except social limitations, at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (p>0.05). However, the increase in PFMS and PFME between baseline and week 12 and earlier improvement was significantly greater in the PFMT and VTT than in the PFMT group (both p<0.05) ConclusionShort-term results demonstrated that PFMT with and without VT exercises had similar effectiveness on the symptoms of SUI and QoL.