The Japanese adaptation and validation of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S)

Ozdemir S., BALOĞLU M., ŞAHİN R.

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY, 2022 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jcop.22850
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, CAB Abstracts, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, CINAHL, EMBASE, Gender Studies Database, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index, Sociological abstracts
  • Keywords: adaptation, COVID-19, Japanese, measurement, pandemics
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


There exists a significant need of screening, measuring, and assessing phobic reactions to the negative effects and consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the world. For this purpose, the C19P-S has been developed and adapted to several languages and cultures including Turkish, Russian, Arabic, English, Korean, and soforth. This study aimed to adapt the scale into Japanese. Convenience sampling was used in the recruitment of the participants. The sample involved 310 Japanese-speaking natives from different prefectures of the country (Mean(AGE) = 49.97; SD = 13.07). The scale is a self-report instrument, which includes 20, 5-point Likert-type items. The scale assesses the levels of COVID-19 phobia in four areas: Psychological, Somatic, Economic, and Social. The validity (content, construct, convergent, and discriminant) and reliability (internal consistency) analyses were conducted. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used for group comparisons. MANOVA results show that women scored statistically higher in the psychological area. Furthermore, the participants with a lower educational level scored higher than those with a higher level in the somatic area. Among other scales measuring fear and anxiety, the C19P-S Japanese (C19P-SJ) is the first measurement tool specifically designed and adapted for evaluating coronaphobia. It is suggested that the individuals with psychiatric diagnoses be included to measure and support the construct validity of the scale.