Mono-wire block cutting machines that cut with a diamond wire can be used for squaring natural stone blocks and the slab-cutting process. The efficient use of these machines reduces operating costs by ensuring less diamond wire wear and longer wire life at high speeds. The high investment costs of these machines will lead to their efficient use and reduce production costs by increasing plant efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the cutting performance parameters of mono-wire cutting machines in terms of rock properties and operating parameters. This study aims to investigate the effects of the wire rotational speed (peripheral speed) and wire descending speed (cutting speed), which are the operating parameters of a mono-wire cutting machine, on unit wear and unit energy, which are the performance parameters in mono-wire cutting. By using the obtained results, cuttability charts for each natural stone were created on the basis of unit wear and unit energy values, cutting optimizations were performed, and the relationships between some physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the optimum cutting parameters obtained as a result of the optimization were investigated.