Improvement of Decellularization Efficiency of Porcine Aorta Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide as a Penetration Enhancer

GÜLER S., Aydin H. M., Lu L., Yang Y.

ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, vol.42, no.2, pp.219-230, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/aor.12978
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.219-230
  • Keywords: Decellularization, Aorta, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Penetration enhancer, TISSUE, MATRIX, DIMETHYLSULFOXIDE, RECELLULARIZATION
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Decellularization of tissues and organs enables researchers to obtain extracellular matrix (ECM) with the natural conformation and chemical composition of specific tissues. However, drawbacks exist such as the structural alteration of ECM or loss of some important components in ECM due to overexposure to chemicals during the decellularization process. In this study, porcine aorta was decellularized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a penetration enhancer in the decellularization process to enhance the penetration of SDS, consequently reducing the exposure time of SDS to treated tissues. It is revealed that by addition of DMSO to the decellularization process 64.4% more DNA was removed when compared with just SDS exposure within a 3h reaction. Cross-validation by DAPI staining showed that, in the presence of DMSO, the penetration of SDS was improved and almost all cells were removed from the aorta within the 3h exposure time. Collagen staining revealed that just SDS treatment showed less polarized collagen fibers, while the DMSO addition groups revealed denser and organized collagen fibers. Moreover 77% glycosaminoglycan content was preserved by addition of DMSO in resultant tissues. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of decellularized aortic matrix showed that ECM components remained in the adventitia layer with the addition of DMSO treatment, while the layer was removed with just SDS treatment. Biocompatibility assays proved that after washing the decellularized samples with media supplemented with 3% antibiotic and antimycotic solution for 2 days there was no cytotoxic effect related to the SDS+DMSO decellularization protocol. This study demonstrates that the new decellularization protocol not only improves the removal efficiency of cellular components but also protects the crucial ECM components.