A new pitfall in detecting biological

Daiber A., Bachschmid M., KAVAKLI C., Frein D., Wendt M., Ullrich V., ...More

NITRIC OXIDE-BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, vol.9, no.1, pp.44-52, 2003 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


The present study shows that when freezing nitrite containing biological samples in the presence of sodium and phosphate, a process of tyrosine nitration and S-nitrosocysteine formation is observed. The underlying mechanism is obviously based on the already described pH decrease in sodium phosphate buffered solutions during the freezing process and probably involves nitrous acid as an intermediate., However, in pure potassium phosphate buffer freeze-artefacts were absent. The yield of 3-nitrotyrosine from albumin-bound or free tyrosine depends not only on the concentration of nitrite, tyrosine or protein, and sodium phosphate but also on the velocity of the freezing process. Nitrite and nitrate were quantified by the Griess/nitrate reductase assay. 3-Nitrotyrosine formation was quantitatively measured by HPLC analysis with optical and electrochemical detection as well as qualitatively investigated by immunohistochemistry and slot blot analysis using 3-nitrotyrosine specific antibodies. The formation of S-nitrosocysteine was detected by S-nitrosothiol specific antibodies and quantified by a fluorometric assay. Irrespective of the mechanism and although the here presented results cannot be generalized, the data warrant caution for the analysis of nitration or nitros(yl)ation products following freezing of nitrite containing biological material. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.