The objective of this study was to determine whether Ramadan is changing frequencies and demographics of visits due to certain diseases. Data obtained from the charts of the adult patients admitted into the emergency department (ED) due to 10 predetermined entities between 2000 and 2004 were analysed. Demographic variables analysed separately for certain entities visiting the ED in Ramadan were not found to be different from visits in other times of year. Visit frequencies for hypertension and uncomplicated headache in Ramadan were significantly higher than in non-Ramadan months (chi(2) test, p = 0.015 for hypertension, p < 0.001 for uncomplicated headache). Mean age of the patients admitted to the ED due to diabetes-related conditions in Ramadan was significantly lower than in pre- and post-Ramadan months (59.91 +/- 14.60 and 62.11 +/- 14.61, respectively) (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.032). The patients with diabetes presenting in Ramadan were found significantly younger than their peers in the rest of the year. For other diseases, Ramadan does not appear to be a risk factor.