Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 10561067 Abstract Turkey has significant geographical and socio-economic differences throughout a vast area of the country. These characteristics affect the epidemiology of infectious diseases, some of which are rarely seen in western Europe. However, effectively implemented control measures have resulted in decreased rates of many community-acquired infections, including tuberculosis and malaria, that were major health problems only a few decades ago. There are high rates of antimicrobial resistance in various nosocomial isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A recently implemented, nationwide, electronic resistance surveillance system in hospitals is expected to produce reliable data, and possibly will help to develop an effective strategy to decrease antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that currently plague many tertiary-care hospitals in the country. This article summarizes the most frequently encountered community-acquired infections, and gives an overview of current antimicrobial resistance in both outpatient and hospital settings in Turkey.