The effect of multimedia design types on learners' recall performances with varying short term memory spans

Bayraktar D. M., ALTUN A.

MULTIMEDIA TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS, vol.71, no.3, pp.1201-1213, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 71 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11042-012-1257-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1201-1213
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the effect of multimedia learning environment designed with two different attention types (focused - split) was investigated on recall performances of learners with different short term memory spans (high - medium - low). The participants were 60 undergraduate students who were presented with either focused attention or split attention multimedia learning materials. First, participants' short term memory spans were determined by Visual - Aural Digit Span Test-Revised (VADS-B) test. Second, they were separated to three groups as high, medium and low. In 3 x 2 nested ANOVA design, one of the groups studied the multimedia designed in split attention type whereas the other had focused attention type design. As they finished the study task, they were given a recall task, which produced their recall performances. Data were analyzed by Nested ANOVA, t-Test and ANCOVA tests. The findings indicated that multimedia instructional designs were effective on recall performances. Learners showed higher recall performances in the multimedia learning environment in focused attention design. However, no significant difference was observed in learners' recall performances when their STM spans were taken into account. Significant differences were observed between time spent in studying multimedia.