Influence of season and lactational stage on aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in human milk in a cohort study from southeastern region of Turkey

YALÇIN S. S., Gunes B., Yalcin S.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH, vol.32, no.6, pp.1192-1203, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09603123.2020.1860200
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1192-1203
  • Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, human breast milk, season, lactational stage
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The aim was to evaluate the changes in aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in human breast milk (HBM) during the first five postpartum months according to the sampling season in a cohort study from Sanliurfa. From 78 healthy lactating mothers, HBM was taken at the 5-14 days postpartum (D5-14) and the 6(th) and 18(th) weeks postpartum (W6 and W18). Mycotoxin levels were analyzed with competitive ELISA. Generalized Estimating Equations with repeated measures (three-correlation matrix dimension) revealed a significantly higher mean AFM1 level at W6 than that on D5-14. AFM1 and OTA levels in winter and spring were considerably higher than that in summer and autumn. Maternal smoke exposure, body mass index, history of moldy food exposure, birth order, and breastfeeding type did not influence the results. Whilst season had a marked effect on the milk levels of both analytes, lactation stage affected AFM1 more notable than OTA.