Percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts: to PAIR or not to PAIR


Current opinion in infectious diseases, vol.36, no.5, pp.308-317, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/qco.0000000000000956
  • Journal Name: Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.308-317
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to review recent literature for percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts (cystic echinococcosis: CE) via different techniques such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration), standard catheterization, and modified catheterization technique (MoCaT). RECENT FINDINGS: PAIR is an established technique and considered to be safe and effective for CE1 and CE3a as it is associated with lower morbidity, mortality, recurrence, and shorter hospital stay as compared with surgery. Standard catheterization is also dedicated for the treatment of CE1 and CE3a. PAIR should be preferred for treatment of liver CE1 and CE3a cysts, since PAIR is associated with lower major complication rates and shorter hospital stay. However, standard catheterization technique is indicated when cysto-biliary fistula develops or any technical difficulty arises during the PAIR. In these cases it is needed to switch PAIR to standard catheterization to complete the procedure. SUMMARY: For CE1 and CE3a cysts, PAIR and standard catheterization are the choice for percutaneous treatments, while MoCaT is a treatment option for CE2 and CE3b cysts.