Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an important cause of serious infectious diseases, leading to death among children all over the world. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in 2000 to prevent pneumococcal infections, was included in the Childhood National Immunization Program of Turkey in November 2008 and has been used since then. Data from various regions of the world have shown that the frequency of infections due to serotypes included in the PCV7 has substantially decreased, and these infections have almost been eradicated in some regions with PCV7 vaccination. On the other hand, there is a relative increase in the frequency of infections due to serotypes such as 19A, which are not included in the PCV7. Therefore, many countries, including Turkey, have implemented the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) immunization program. In this paper, data regarding PCV7 immunization and outcomes, as well as the switch from PCV7 to PCV13, were reviewed.