Evaluation of daily and social participation of children with Cerebral Palsy across different age groups with a focus on the ‘F′-words: Function, family, fitness, fun, friends and future

KEREM GÜNEL M., ARSLAN U. E., SEYHAN BIYIK K., ÖZAL C., Numanoğlu-Akbaş A., ÜNEŞ S., ...More

Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol.140, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 140
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ridd.2023.104588
  • Journal Name: Research in Developmental Disabilities
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ASSIA, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Activity, Cerebral Palsy, Family, ICF, Life-H, Participation, Six F-words
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: The impact of disability differs across cultures. This study aimed to determine the predictors of participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Turkey, based on the six F-words. Methods: Cross-sectional study exploring participation profiles of 450 children with CP, aged between 2 and 18 years. Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) evaluated functional skills, and Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) version 3.0 assessed daily and social participation. Hierarchical linear regression models were done to determine the predictors of participation in daily activities (PDA) and social roles (PSR) in three age groups (2–4, 5–13 and 14–18 years) based on the 6 F-words (mobility of PEDI for ‘fitness’; four classification systems and self-care of PEDI for ‘functioning’; social functions of PEDI for ‘friends’; demographic information by parents for ‘family’; the recreation of LIFE-H for ‘fun’; and different stages of development for ‘future’). Results: The most important predictors for total PDA by age group were: self-care (p = 0.012) of PEDI in 2–4 y; self-care (p = 0.001) and mobility (p = 0.005) of PEDI in 5–13 y; GMFCS (p = 0.006) and mobility (p = 0.002) of PEDI in 14–18 y. Significant predictors for PSR differed by age group: self-care (p = 0.001) of PEDI in 2–4 y; self-care (p = 0.023) and mobility (p = 0.006) of PEDI in 5–13 y; and GMFCS (p = 0.004) and MACS (p = 0.003) in 14–18 y. Conclusions: Six F-words of function and fitness focussed on self-care in younger children with an increasing emphasis on mobility and ability levels according to age. Therefore, rehabilitation for different aspects of the functional levels is needed to improve participation in life across the six F-words framework; plus take into consideration context, age-differences, family's expectations, life requirements, environmental needs, and cultural differences.