Modelling of perceived sweetness in biscuits based on sensory analysis as a new tool to evaluate reformulation performance in sugar reduction studies


Food Chemistry, vol.425, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 425
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.136490
  • Journal Name: Food Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Aroma, Biscuits, Maillard reaction, Sugar reduction, Sweetness perception, Weibull model
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Sugar reduction in foods is of global interest in food science and industry to limit excessive calorie intake for healthier nutrition. Therefore, a modified Weibull model-based approach is presented here to relate sweetness perception with sugar concentration for the first time. The model was tested by using sweetness perception data obtained from sensory analysis of biscuits (wholewheat flour, whey or hydrolysed pea protein, different sucrose forms, ethylvanillin, furaneol, phenylacetaldehyde) using a line scale and untrained panellists. Sweetness scores increased 56%, 59%, 41% by the addition of wholewheat flour, proteins, or aroma compounds at 17% sucrose containing biscuits, respectively. Wholewheat flour and proteins boosted Maillard reaction products imparting baked/caramel-like flavour. The Weibull model well fitted to the sweetness perception data with a sigmoidal curve and high predicting power. This approach allows to explain how much sugar reduction can be achieved to reach a targeted sweetness perception without performing further sensory analysis.