The Two Sides of Cognitive Masking: A Three-Level Bayesian Meta-Analysis on Twice-Exceptionality

Atmaca F., Baloğlu M.

GIFTED CHILD QUARTERLY, vol.66, no.4, pp.277-295, 2022 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/00169862221110875
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Periodicals Index Online, Applied Science & Technology Source, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.277-295
  • Keywords: twice exceptional, learning disabilities, attention-deficit disorder, attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, MGH LONGITUDINAL FAMILY, WORKING-MEMORY, WISC-III, HIGH-IQ, AUTISM SPECTRUM, GIFTED STUDENTS, SPEED DEFICITS, NAMING-SPEED, R PACKAGE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


We compared the Wechsler scores of individuals with twice-exceptionality (2e) and giftedness using a three-level Bayesian meta-analysis. Ninety-five effect sizes were calculated from 15 studies (n = 2,106). Results show that individuals with 2e who have learning disabilities perform lower than individuals with giftedness in Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ; g = −0.62), working memory (g = −0.79), and processing speed (g = −0.75). Individuals with 2e who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have a distinct profile in which only processing speed differs from individuals with giftedness (g = −0.55). Results suggest that using a single Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score in the identification process will be misleading. Moreover, IQ may mask the strengths or weaknesses of individuals with 2e.