Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is the most common pediatric rheumatologic disorder with unknown etiology. Currently, no population-based data are available regarding the distribution of categories and frequency of uveitis in patients with JIA in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of JIA-associated uveitis (JIAU) and distribution of JIA categories in a Turkish JIA cohort. Methods This was a retrospective study of 500 randomized patients in four pediatric rheumatology clinics in Turkey. Results Oligoarticular JIA (oJIA) was the most common JIA disease category in this study cohort (38.8%). The frequencies of the other categories were as follows: enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), 23.2%; rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarthritis, 15.6%; systemic arthritis, 12.2%; juvenile psoriatic arthritis, 5.2%; undifferentiated arthritis, 2.8%; and RF-positive polyarthritis, 2.2%. JIA-associated uveitis was observed in 6.8% of patients at a mean (Standard Deviation, SD) age of 9.1 (3.8) years over a mean JIA disease duration of 4 (1.9) years. Uveitis developed after joint disease, with a mean (SD) duration of 1.8 (1.9) years. Patients with oJIA had the highest rate of uveitis (12.9%) followed by patients with ERA (5.2%) and polyarticular RF-negative disease (3.8%). Compared with persistent oJIA, the extended oJIA category had a > 3-fold higher risk of uveitis (11.3% vs 27.7%; odds ratio, 3.38 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.09-10.4]). The most frequently administered drug after development of uveitis was tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (38.2%). Five patients (14.7%) had uveitis-related complications that required surgical intervention. Conclusions Turkish pediatric patients with JIA experience a lower frequency of oJIA and higher frequency of ERA than their white European counterparts; the occurrence of uveitis is also somewhat lower than expected. Geographic and ethnic factors may affect these differences and need further investigation.