Small molecule inhibitors and stimulators of inducible nitric oxide synthase in cancer cells from natural origin (phytochemicals, marine compounds, antibiotics)

Oezenver N., Efferth T.

BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, vol.176, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 176
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113792
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chimica, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of isoforms, which generate nitric oxide (NO). NO is one of the smallest molecules in nature and acts mainly as a potent vasodilator. It participates in various biological processes ranging from physiological to pathological conditions. Inducible NOS (iNOS, NOS2) is a calcium-independent and inducible isoform. Despite high iNOS expression in many tumors, the role of iNOS is still unclear and complex with both enhancing and prohibiting actions in tumorigenesis. Nature presents a broad variety of natural stimulators and inhibitors, which may either promote or inhibit iNOS response. In the present review, we give an overview of iNOS-modulating agents with a special focus on both natural and synthetic molecules and their effects in related biological processes. The role of iNOS in physiological and pathological conditions is also discussed.