The current treatment of splenic injury in children is conservative. The common concern with nonoperative management of splenic injury involves increased risk of posttraumatic splenic complications. Computed tomography angiography is a noninvasive and useful technique for the detection of the vascular abnormalities in conservatively managed splenic injuries. We present a case of posttraumatic splenic pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a 12-year-old boy, which were prediagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound and consecutively shown by computed tomography angiography. The treatment of splenic AVF is indicated to avoid portal hypertension, high output cardiac failure, and related complications. To preserve the splenic immune function and to avoid the risk of surgery and splenectomy complications, splenic pseudoaneurysm and AVF were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.