Human milk mycotoxin contamination: smoking exposure and breastfeeding problems

Memis E. Y. , YALÇIN S. S.

JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Purpose: Mammalian milk may contain pollutants as a result of the maternal exposure. The objective was to determine the presence of selected mycotoxins in human milk and to investigate the effect of maternal characteristics on breastmilk mycotoxin levels and to examine the effect of mycotoxin contamination on lactational problems. Materials and methods: Information about maternal characteristics were taken by a questionnaire and breast milk samples were collected. Levels of aflatoxins M1 (AFM1), ochratoxins A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), Deoxynivalenol (DON) were determined by the solid-phase direct competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results: Median levels of breast milk AFM1 and OTA was 3.07 pg/mL and 1.38 ng/mL, respectively. ZEN and DON levels were higher than 0.3 ng/mL in 59% and higher than 10 ng/mL in 37.7%. After controlling for confounding factors, mothers who experienced "delayed onset of lactogenesis" had odds 3.33 times more for the highest quartile of ZEN and mothers with cracked nipples had odds 8.36 times more for the highest quartile of DON. Multiple regression analysis revealed that smoking exposure (environmental, maternal smoking versus never) significantly affected being in the highest quartile of OTA. Conclusion: Mycotoxin can pass to breast milk and smoking exposure of the mother may influence this situation. Mycotoxin exposure may lead to lactation problems. Maternal and infant health can be protected by preventing smoking exposure.