The Importance of Awareness for Malaria Regarding Prophylaxis and Early Diagnosis: Two Imported Malaria Cases in Turkey


ÖZMEN ÇAPIN B. B. , SÖNMEZER M. Ç. , Tortop S., Unalan T., BÖLEK H. , ALTINTOP S. E. , ...Daha Fazla

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, cilt.53, ss.472-479, 2019 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 53 Konu: 4
  • Basım Tarihi: 2019
  • Doi Numarası: 10.5578/mb.68419
  • Dergi Adı: MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.472-479

Özet

In spite of the fact that Plasmodium vivax is the leading causative agent of malaria in our country, imported malaria cases have been reported, recently. In this report, two malaria cases originated from sub-Saharan Africa, and their diagnostic and therapeutic approaches were aimed to be presented. First case, 45-year-old male, who has been working in Republic of Ghana, was admitted to Hacettepe University Hospitals Emergency Service with complaints of fever, sweating and shivering, after returning to Turkey. On admission, his general condition was fine and his physical examination revealed no pathological finding. After his admission, a fever episode occured and his blood tests revealed anemia, trombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase level. Second case, 39-year-old-male admitted to the emergency service with the complaints of fever, shivering and myalgia. His physical examination revealed decreased breath sounds and splenomegaly, his laboratory tests resulted in pansitopenia and elevated liver enzymes. In the thick blood smears of the patients ring formed young trophozoites are detected and in the thin films multiple ring forms demonstrated in one erythrocyte with the absence of mature trophozoites and schizont forms, which were compatible with falciparum malaria. The rapid antigen test (Digamed, Belgium) of the second case found to be positive for both Plasmodium falciparum and P.vivax and this patient followed-up in intensive care unit due to his deterioration of general condition, respiratory distress, hematuria and change of consciousness. Neither cases were commenced on malaria prophylaxis. Both patients have been in countries which chloroquine resistance is commonly seen, they were treated with artemether/lumefantrine as current World Health Organization recommended. Targeting hypnozoites of P.vivax, primaquine was added to the therapy of the second patient. Both patients resulted in cure. In conclusion, while travelling to endemic countries, people should be informed about the importance of malaria prophylaxis and prophylaxis should be commenced immediately and continued appropriately. Additionally, malaria should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of high fever for the patients who admitted to the hospital with a travelling history to these countries.