The detection and identification of clinical biomarkers with related sensitivity have become a source of considerable concern for biomedical analysis. There have been increasing efforts toward the development of single-molecule analytical platforms to overcome this concern. The latest developments in plasmonic nanomaterials include fascinating advances in energy, catalyst chemistry, optics, biotechnology, and medicine. Nanomaterials can be successfully applied to biomolecule and drug detection in plasmonic nanosensors for pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. Plasmonic-based sensing technology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity depending on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomena. In this critical paper, we offer an overview of the methodology of the SPR, LSPR, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA), surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF), and plasmonic nanoplatforms advanced for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. First of all, we present here a brief discussion of the above trends. We have devoted the last section to the explanation of SPR, LSPR, SERS, SEIRA, and SEF platforms, which have found a wide range of applications, and reviewed recent advances for biomedical and pharmaceutical analysis.